This technique involves the collection of sperm by surgical removal from the testicular tissue. The patient is sedated. A reproductive urologist removes small pieces of testicular tissue by biopsy or aspiration. The tissue is examined for the presence of mature sperm. Any sperm that are found are extracted from the tissue, collected, and transferred to a sperm bank for freezing and storage.
This technique can be used for post-pubertal males. It may be considered for patients who have no sperm found in the ejaculate (azoospermic).
These techniques involve the standard risks associated with anesthesia. To minimize risk, consider scheduling with other procedure(s) that the patient has to undergo requiring anesthesia. There are also the risks associated with an invasive procedure; to minimize risk, the patient may need prophylactic antibiotics.
When ready to attempt pregnancy, the frozen specimens are thawed and used with in vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Success rates vary based on age and fertility status of the female partner, and on the quality of the pre-treatment specimen.